The Wall Street trading landscape is undergoing a dramatic shift with the boom of zero-day options. These options, also known as "zero-day-to-expiry" (0DTE) options, have extremely short shelf lives, expiring in less than a day. They have become a high-speed, high-risk, high-reward tool in turbulent markets.
Zero-day-to-expiry options refer to options contracts that have only one trading day remaining until they expire. These contracts are highly speculative and carry significant risk due to the potential for rapid price movements in the underlying asset. While they offer the possibility of substantial gains within a short timeframe, they can also lead to significant losses if the market moves against the option holder. Consequently, these options are primarily used by experienced traders seeking quick profits or protection against short-term market fluctuations.
For institutional investors, zero-day options provide a means to hedge short-term risks in a market characterized by daily volatility. However, even seasoned Wall Street professionals have mixed opinions about the risks and opportunities associated with these options.
Despite the debate among analysts and industry experts, retail investors with a taste for excitement are diving into zero-day options trading. They are well aware of the risks, having witnessed the volatility of stocks like GameStop and AMC, the market slump of 2022, and the fluctuations in the cryptocurrency market. Nevertheless, the potential for significant gains is too enticing for them to resist.
Garrett Mastronardi, a 30-year-old trader from Jacksonville, Florida, describes trading zero-day options as "pure degenerate gambling." He claims to have made a six-figure profit from such trades. Similarly, Nicholas Rogers, a 22-year-old student, boasts of pocketing gains as high as $8,000 from a single trade. These retail investors appreciate the fast-paced nature of the market, where they can turn small amounts of money into substantial profits quickly.
Such enthusiasm from retail investors concerns experienced market professionals like Steve Sosnick, the chief strategist at Interactive Brokers. He warns that trading these options without adequate capital or risk management skills can be extremely dangerous.
Zero-day options have gained popularity as a means of making short-term bets on the direction of indices, stocks, or exchange-traded funds. When buying an option, a trader gains the right to buy or sell a security at a predetermined price within a specific time frame. With zero-day-to-expiry options, the contract expires at the end of the trading day, requiring traders to make quick decisions to fulfil the contract or risk losing their initial investment.
The surge in popularity of zero-day options occurred after exchanges, including Cboe Global Markets, expanded S&P 500 options expirations to cover all five weekdays. This change allowed traders to incorporate zero-day options into their daily routines and speculate on market-moving events throughout the week. In March, zero-day-to-expiry contracts accounted for 42% of the S&P 500's total options trading volume, compared to 22% the previous year, according to data from Bank of America.
The increasing popularity of zero-day options has led to a rise in coaching services that offer educational materials and personalized training. Retail brokerage trading apps, such as TD Ameritrade's Thinkorswim, Webull, and Robinhood, have made it easier for small investors to participate in this market.
Trading zero-day options is more complex and less forgiving than buying and selling stocks, as there is little room for error. Unlike stocks, where a decline can be held in the hope of a recovery, zero-day options either result in immediate gains or losses. The intense nature of these trades has earned them a reputation akin to casino gambling.
While the potential for profits exists, it should be noted that these options are not recommended for most investors by financial advisors. Furthermore, concerns have been raised about how institutional investors, who dominate zero-day options trading, may contribute to the daily volatility of the market.
In conclusion, zero-day options have emerged as a disruptive force in Wall Street trading. Professional traders and retail investors alike are navigating the risks and rewards of these high-speed, high-risk instruments. Whether they are a boon or a bane to the market remains a subject of debate, but their popularity continues to grow.